Immunohistochemical Expression of MDM2 and p16 in Adipocytic Neoplasms Measuring Ten Centimeters or more in Diameter among Filipino Patients in a Public Tertiary Hospital from 2017 to 2019
Introduction: A size of more than 10 cm suggests that a soft tissue tumor might be malignant. Pertinent ancillary diagnostic testing, such as immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), may be done to confirm the diagnosis. Several studies have shown that size may be a useful criterion in determining which tumors are candidates for further molecular testing. MDM2 and p16 are IHC markers for atypical lipomatous tumor/well-differentiated liposarcoma (ALT/WDLPS).
Objectives: The primary objective of this study is to determine the proportion of tumors signed out as “lipomas” from 2017 to 2019, and measuring at least 10 cm, that express MDM2 and p16 on IHC and warrant revision as ALT/WDLPS.
Methodology: This is a descriptive, retrospective cohort study in which all lipomas from 2017 to 2019 that measured at least 10 cm were included. The size, age of the patient, and location of each tumor were documented. The slides of all eligible cases were reviewed and immunohistochemically stained for MDM2 and p16. For each case, the intensity and immunoreactivity of each stain were assessed using a modified, four-tier scoring system. Fisher’s exact test was used to determine if a significant number of tumors expressed MDM2 or p16.
Results: Thirty (30) cases satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The average size of these tumors is 15.10 cm. There is no sex predilection. The most common location of these tumors is the extremities. None of the tumors expressed MDM2, and only one case was p16-positive. The case positive for p16 also showed cytologic atypia and variability in cell size, resulting in the revision of its diagnosis from lipoma to atypical lipomatous tumor. The rate of diagnosis revision after slide review and IHC studies is 3.33%.
Conclusion: None of the adipocytic tumors that measured at least 10 cm in diameter and were signed out as lipomas was MDM2 positive, and only one case was p16-positive. Thus, morphology remains the cornerstone in the diagnosis of adipocytic tumors. Careful microscopic evaluation is necessary to establish the diagnosis of malignancy in these tumors. Ancillary tests should only be considered in cases where the pathologic features are equivocal.
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