PJP https://philippinejournalofpathology.org/index.php/PJP <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>The Philippine Journal of Pathology (PJP)</strong> is an open-access, peer-reviewed, English language, medical science journal published by the Philippine Society of Pathologists, Inc. Committee on Publications. It shall serve as the official platform for publication of high quality original articles, case reports or series, feature articles, and editorials covering topics on clinical and anatomic pathology, laboratory medicine and medical technology, diagnostics, laboratory biosafety and biosecurity, as well as laboratory quality assurance, that are relevant to the Philippines.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">The journal's primary target audience are laboratorians, diagnosticians, laboratory managers, pathologists, medical technologists, and all other medical and scientific disciplines interfacing with the laboratory.</p> <p><strong>IMPORTANT: PJP does NOT charge any Article Processing or Submission Fees from authors. It likewise does not charge any Subscription Fees or Download Fees to access scholarly content.</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Committee on Publications, The Philippine Society of Pathologists, Inc. en-US PJP 0118-3265 <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/" rel="license"><img style="border-width: 0;" src="https://i.creativecommons.org/l/by-nc-sa/4.0/88x31.png" alt="Creative Commons License" width="157" height="55" /></a><br /><span>The Philippine Journal of Pathology</span> is licensed under a <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License</a>. Based on works made open access at <a rel="dct:source">http://philippinejournalofpathology.org</a> Spit or Swab? The Diagnostic Accuracy of Saliva-Based Testing as a Sars-Cov-2 Surveillance Tool https://philippinejournalofpathology.org/index.php/PJP/article/view/333 <p><strong>Background</strong>. Nasopharyngeal swab/oropharyngeal swab (NPS/OPS) qRT-PCR is the gold standard for detecting SARS-CoV-2. However, it has its own limitations including cost and invasiveness. As an alternative, individual qRT-PCR testing of saliva samples was validated and shown to be comparable in sensitivity and specificity with NP-OP qRT-PCR. To further maximize its utility, the researchers wish to explore antigen and pooled testing methods.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>. The study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of detecting SARS-CoV-2 infection using saliva-based pooled qRT-PCR and rapid antigen test compared with individual saliva qRT-PCR.</p> <p><strong>Methodology. </strong>In this retrospective cross-sectional study, saliva specimen from individuals aged 18 years old and above from the outpatient specimen collection station at the Philippine Children’s Medical Center were tested individually using qRT-PCR (Mag-bind RNA Extraction Kit/MACURA, Allsheng Extraction Machine, Sansure PCR kit, and MA-600 Sansure Biotech). Non-probability convenience sampling was utilized. Based on the individual results, pools of five (5) individual specimens, which includes one (1) positive sample were tested with qRT-PCR for sensitivity. DNK-2150-1S Dynamiker SARS-CoV-2 Ag Rapid Test (Dynamiker Biotechnology Co., Ltd., Tianjin, China) was also used to test individual saliva specimens.</p> <p>. Out of 196 individual saliva specimens, 73 were detected to have SARS-COV-2 by qRT-PCR, while the remaining 123 were negative. Compared with the individual saliva qRT-PCR, rapid antigen tests done showed sensitivity of 46.58% (95% CI 35.13%, 58.02%), specificity of 86.18% (95% CI 80.08%, 92.28%), positive and negative predictive value of 66.67% (95% CI 53.71%, 79.60%) and 73.10% (95% CI 65.89%, 80.32%) respectively. Based on the results of individual saliva-based qRT-PCR, 62 pools were tested and showed sensitivity of 98.39% (95% CI 91.34%, 99.96%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion and Recommendation</strong>. Pooled saliva-based testing for SARS-CoV-2 is comparable with individual saliva-based rapid antigen testing. The use of rapid antigen testing is less sensitive and less specific compared with qRT-PCR consistent with prior reports. Additional studies are recommended to determine optimal conditions for testing.</p> Raymundo Lo Farrah Kristine Santiago Grig Misiona Melani Sionzon Danielle Anne Gonong Jill Jaime Jan Roman Ayco Aquiles Joseph Lira Erik Francis Rarugal Jon Carlo Crisostomo Manuel Bautista Jr. Kenneth Chrysostom Ibarra Eunice Jane Ciriaco Arielle Trish Zamora Kimberly Abundo Emmylou Tarnate Jonathan Nario Jan Joseph Hernandez Kathleen Mae Montes Ma. Anabella Recio Copyright (c) 2022 PJP http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2022-11-18 2022-11-18 7 2 Non-parametric Clinical Laboratory Reference Interval Estimation in Volunteer Blood Donors https://philippinejournalofpathology.org/index.php/PJP/article/view/341 <p><strong>Introduction. </strong>To date, there are no reference intervals for prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) based on “normal” Filipino adults. The common practice in most laboratories is to adopt manufacturer provided values or foreign literature even if the importance of establishing or at least verifying laboratory reference intervals has been stressed by Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI).</p> <p><strong>Objectives. </strong>Here we aim to describe our experience in using a simple non-parametric method to generate reference intervals for PT and APTT, from healthy Filipino volunteer blood donors.</p> <p><strong>Methodology. </strong>We used a de novo, a priori non-parametric estimation method following the CLSI guidelines on establishing reference intervals.</p> <p><strong>Results. </strong>The non-parametric lower reference limit for PT is 12.55 seconds, with 90% confidence interval of 12.3 to 12.75 seconds. While the non-parametric upper reference limit for PT is 16.15 seconds, with 90% confidence interval of 15.55 to 16.55 seconds. The non-parametric lower reference limit for activated partial thromboplastin time is 26.12 seconds, with 90% confidence interval of 22.95 to 27.1 seconds, and the non-parametric upper reference limit for activated partial thromboplastin time is 37.44 seconds, with 90% confidence interval of 36.75 to 38.65 seconds. The PT and APTT reference intervals were different from foreign sources and manufacturer provided values in terms of interval width and values of the reference limits by 2 to 4 seconds.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion and Recommendations. </strong>Estimation of coagulation reference intervals from volunteer health blood donors is doable, simple, and practical. Collaborative multi-center efforts may be done to expand the pool of reference individuals that are included and increase the representativeness of the reference intervals generated. This simple method can also be used to generate reference intervals for other clinical laboratory assays and may also be extended to at least verify reference intervals in special populations like pregnant women, the elderly, and the pediatric population.</p> Mark Angelo Ang Nelson Geraldino Ariel Vergel de Dios Marimin Abad-Lapuebla Copyright (c) 2022 PJP http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2022-12-07 2022-12-07 7 2 Submandibular Secretory Carcinoma in a 10-year-old Filipino https://philippinejournalofpathology.org/index.php/PJP/article/view/339 <p>Secretory carcinoma is a recently described salivary gland neoplasm reported in the fourth edition of World Health Organization classification of head and neck tumors.<sup>1</sup> We report a case of a primary secretory carcinoma arising from the submandibular gland that was completely excised in a 10-year-old. The histomorphologic features and the immunophenotype studies are compatible with secretory carcinoma. Unless proven otherwise by immunohistochemical stains and cytogenetics, secretory carcinoma should be included as a differential in cases of lesion of the major and minor salivary glands that has the primary differential diagnosis of acinic cell carcinoma. This case report aims to contribute to the limited literature about this disease entity and would be one of the few reported cases of the disease in a school-age child.</p> John Nicholas Pantoja Manuelito Madrid Francisco Tria IV Copyright (c) 2022 PJP http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2022-10-17 2022-10-17 7 2