Baseline Complete Blood Count and Cell Population Data as Prognostic Markers for In-Hospital Mortality among COVID-19 Patients admitted at the Philippine General Hospital from March 2020 to January 2022




COVID-19, hematology, blood cell count, complete blood count, prognosis, cell population data


Introduction. Complete blood count (CBC) and cell population data (CPD) are hematologic parameters used in several clinical scenarios including infection and neoplastic processes. In the setting of COVID-19 infection, there is relative paucity of data in their use as possible prognostic markers.

Objective. We aim to evaluate the utility of the baseline CBC and CPD as prognostic markers for in-hospital mortality among COVID-19 patients admitted in Philippine General Hospital from March 2020 to January 2022.

Methodology. This is a case-control study. Expired patients served as cases, and recovered patients served as controls. Data from eligible patients including age, sex, admitting COVID diagnosis with severity, final disposition, baseline CBC and CPD results were collected from the hospital medical records and hematology section of the Department of Laboratories. Statistical analyses were done to determine the prognostic value of these parameters for in-hospital mortality.

Results. Among the different CBC and CPD parameters, the study shows total white blood cell (WBC) count, absolute neutrophil count (ANC), absolute eosinophil count (AEC), and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) were statistically significant predictors for in-hospital mortality. For total WBC count, at a cut off 9.9 x 109/L, the sensitivity and specificity is 70.9% and 66.2%, respectively. For ANC, at a cut off of 7.3 x 109/L, the specificity is 76.4% and the specificity is 68.2%. At a cut off of 7.62, the NLR shows a sensitivity of 76.4% and specificity of 70.1%. For AEC, at a cut off of 0.006 x 109/L, the sensitivity is 53.3% and the specificity is 87.3%. AEC predicts towards the direction of survival rather than to the direction of in-hospital mortality.

Conclusion. The total WBC count, ANC, and NLR were statistically significant predictors for in-hospital mortality, while AEC predicts towards the direction of survival. The sensitivities and specificities of the cut off for these parameters were less than ideal. Correlation with clinical and other laboratory parameters is still recommended. For future studies, the authors recommend monitoring CBC and CPD parameters at different time points during the patients’ hospital course.


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Author Biographies

Karen Damian, College of Medicine, University of the Philippines Manila

Department of Pathology

Emilio Villanueva III, College of Medicine, University of the Philippines Manila

Department of Pathology


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How to Cite

Kuizon, B. A., Damian, K., & Villanueva III, E. (2023). Baseline Complete Blood Count and Cell Population Data as Prognostic Markers for In-Hospital Mortality among COVID-19 Patients admitted at the Philippine General Hospital from March 2020 to January 2022. PJP, 8(1), 13–20.



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