Correlation of Tumor-associated Leukocytes with Prognosis of Colorectal Carcinoma based on Pathologic Stage

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John Anthony Tindoc
Emilio Villanueva III
Nelson Geraldino


Objectives To perform a pilot study investigating the presence of correlation between the different mean tumor-associated leukocyte counts and the prognosis of colorectal cancer based on pathologic stage.

Methodology A cross-sectional study design, involving colorectal carcinoma cases in the Philippine General Hospital from 2015-2016. Proportional allocation stratified random sampling was done, with pathologic stage (AJCC 7th Edition) as the stratifying variable, collecting a total of 59 samples. Tissue sections from the samples were evaluated for the different tumor-associated lymphocyte counts. Correlation coefficients were computed to determine their correlation with pathologic stage as surrogate marker for prognosis.

Results Of the myriad populations counted within and around the tumor mass, total lymphocyte, cytotoxic T-cell (CD8+ T-cell), neutrophil, macrophage, and plasma cell populations have significant correlation with pathologic stage as surrogate marker for prognosis of colorectal carcinoma.

Conclusion The immune system appears to have a significant role in the natural history of colorectal carcinoma. The tumor-infiltrating lymphocytic population and especially the CD8+ T-cell subset, neutrophils, and macrophages are correlated with better prognosis. The same observation can be seen with the peritumoral CD8+ T-cells, neutrophils, macrophages, and plasma cells.


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Tindoc, J. A., Villanueva III, E., & Geraldino, N. (2019). Correlation of Tumor-associated Leukocytes with Prognosis of Colorectal Carcinoma based on Pathologic Stage. Philippine Journal of Pathology, 4(2), 24. Retrieved from
Original Articles
Author Biographies

John Anthony Tindoc, Silliman University Medical Center

Department of Laboratories

Emilio Villanueva III, University of the Philippines - College of Medicine

Department of Pathology

Clinical Associate Professor

Nelson Geraldino, University of the Philippines - Philippine General Hospital

Department of Laboratories



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