Targeted Sequencing of Mixed Neuroendocrine- Non-neuroendocrine Neoplasm of the Gallbladder Suggests a Monoclonal Origin: A Case Report
Mixed neuroendocrine-non-neuroendocrine neoplasm (MiNEN) of the gallbladder is a rare tumor that is defined in the World Health Organization (WHO) 2019 digestive system tumor classification as the presence of a neuroendocrine neoplasm admixed with a non-neuroendocrine carcinoma, each component constituting at least 30% of the neoplasm. The exact pathogenesis of MiNENs remains unclear. We present a case of a 74-year-old Filipino woman who presented with nonspecific clinical and radiologic findings and subsequently underwent cholecystectomy. Histopathologic and immunohistochemical evaluation of the gallbladder confirmed the diagnosis of a mixed well-differentiated adenocarcinoma (30%) and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (70%). The adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine carcinoma components were separately microdissected and submitted for targeted 15-gene sequencing using the Illumina Trusight Tumor 15 (TST15) panel. NGS identified a TP53 missense mutation leading to a stop codon in both components. The finding of similar molecular signatures in the two morphologically distinct components supports the hypothesis that MiNEN arises from a common precursor stem cell capable of divergent phenotypic differentiation.
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