Digital Pathology: An Innovative Approach to Medical Education

Leonisa Sagun, Randell Arias

Abstract

Pathology, a basic science course in medical schools is a highly visual subject that requires examination of tissues using a microscope. With progressive technological advancements, the use of time-tested optical microscopes in teaching is seemingly slowly replaced by virtual microscopy that many medical schools in developed countries proved its numerous advantages. In our setting, digital pathology is not yet fully integrated in medical school. Although a few medical institutions in the country may have started this technology, there are still a lot to explore with virtual microscopy that will unlock its full potential of revolutionizing medical education in the future.

Keywords

digital pathology, virtual microscopy, medical education, pathology education

Full Text:

Abstract HTML PDF

References

Naw ME, Thu ZH, San SO. Student’s perception on effectiveness of pathology teaching in phase 1 medical program at UCSI university. IJMSE. 2016;3(3):264-73. http://www.ijmse.com/uploads/1/4/0/3/14032141/ijmse_vol_3_issue__3_page_264-273.pdf.

Soenksen D. Digital pathology: a new frontier in education. LabMedicine. 2008;39(2):73-7.

Dee FR. Virtual microscopy in pathology education. Hum Pathol. 2009;40(8):1112-21. PMID:19540551 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.humpath.2009.04.010.

Pantanowitz L, Sinard JH, Henricks WH, et al. Validating whole slide imaging for diagnostic purposes in pathology: Guideline from the College of American Pathologists Pathology and Laboratory Quality Center. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2013;137(12):1710–22. PMID: 23634907. https://doi.org/10.5858/arpa.2013-0093-CP.

Dee FR, Heidger P. Virtual slides for teaching histology and pathology in: Virtual microscopy and virtual slides in teaching, diagnosis, and research. Florida: Taylor & Francis Group, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2005.

Paulsen FP, Eichhorn M, Bräuer L. Virtual microscopy – the future of teaching histology in the medical curriculum? Ann Anat. 2010;192(6):378–82. PMID: 20971623. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aanat.2010.09.008.

Bloodgood RA, Ogilvie RW. Trends in histology laboratory teaching in United States medical schools. Anat Rec B New Anat.2006;289(5):169-75. PMID: 16955496. https://doi.org/10.1002/ar.b.20111.

Krippendorf BB, Lough J. Complete and rapid switch from light microscopy to virtual microscopy for teaching medical histology. Anat Rec B New Anat. 2005;285(1):19–25. PMID: 16032757. https://doi.org/ 10.1002/ar.b.20066.

Brauchli K, Jagilly R, Oberli H, et al. Telepathology on the Solomon Islands – two years’ experience with a hybrid web- and email-based telepathology system. J Telemed Telecare 2004;10(Suppl 1):14-7. https://doi.org/ 10.1258/1357633042614249.

Pagni F, Bono F, Di Bella C, Faravelli A, Cappellini A. Virtual surgical pathology in underdeveloped countries: the Zambia project. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2011;135(2):215-9. PMID: 21284441. https://doi.org/ 10.1043/1543-2165-135.2.215.

Pantanowitz L, Dickinson K, Evans AJ, et al. American Telemedicine Association clinical guidelines for telepathology. J Pathol Inform. 2014;5(1):39. PMID: 25379345. PMCID: PMC4221880. https://doi.org/ 10.4103/2153-3539.143329.

Weinstein RS. The education of professionals. Hum Pathol. 2003;34(5):415-6. PMID: 12792912.

Molnar B, Berczi L, Diczhazy C, et al. Digital slide and virtual microscopy based routine and telepathology evaluation of routine gastrointestinal biopsy specimens. J Clin Pathol. 2003;56(6):433-8. PMID: 12783970 PMCID: PMC1769977.

Okada DH, Binder SW, Felten CL, Strauss JS, Marchevsky AM. “Virtual microscopy” and the internet as telepathology consultation tools: diagnostic accuracy in evaluating melanocytic skin lesions. Am J Dermatopathol.1999;21(6):525-31. PMID: 10608244.

Evans AJ, Chetty R, Clarke BA, et al. Primary frozen section diagnosis by robotic microscopy and virtual slide telepathology: the University Health Network experience. Hum Pathol. 2009;40(8):1070-81. PMID: 19540554. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.humpath.2009.04.012.

Dunn BE, Choi H, Recla DL, Kerr SE, Wagenman BL. Robotic surgical telepathology between the Iron Mountain and Milwaukee Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Centers: a 12-year experience. Hum Pathol. 2009;40(8):1092–9. PMID: 19552935. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.humpath.2009.04.007.

Tsuchihashi Y, Takamatsu T, Hashimoto Y, Takashima T, Nakano K, Fujita S. Use of virtual slide system for quick frozen intra-operative telepathology diagnosis in Kyoto, Japan. Diagn Pathol. 2008;3(Suppl 1):S6. PMID: 18673520. PMCID: PMC2500112. https://doi.org/10.1186/1746-1596-3-S1-S6.

Blake CA, Lavoie HA, Millette CF. Teaching medical histology at the University of South Carolina School of Medicine: transition to virtual slides and virtual microscopes. Anat Rec B New Anat. 2003;275(1):196-206. PMID: 14628320. https://doi.org/10.1002/ar.b.10037.

Foster K. Medical education in the digital age: digital whole slide imaging as an e-learning tool. J Pathol Inform. 2010;1:14. PMID: 20922031. PMCID: PMC2941967. https://doi.org/10.4103/2153-3539.68331.

Boutonnat J, Paulin C, Faure C, Colle PE, Ronot X, Seigneurin D. A pilot study in two French medical schools for teaching histology using virtual microscopy. Morphologie. 2006; 90(288):21-5. PMID: 16929817.

Chen YK, Hsue SS, Lin DC, et al. An application of virtual microscopy in the teaching of an oral and maxillofacial pathology laboratory course. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2008;105(3):342-7. PMID: 17689118. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tripleo.2007.03.020.

Mills PC, Bradley AP, Woodall PF, Wildermoth M. Teaching histology to first-year veterinary science students using virtual microscopy and traditional microscopy: a comparison of student responses. J Vet Med Educ. 2007;34(2):177-82. PMID: 17446646.

Evans AJ, Bauer TW, Bui MM, et al. US Food and Drug Administration approval of whole slide imaging for primary diagnosis: A key milestone is reached and new questions are raised. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2018; 142(11):1383–7. PMID: 29708429. https://doi.org/10.5858/arpa.2017-0496-CP.

Kumar RK, Velan GM, Korell SO, Kandara M, Dee FR, Wakefield D. Virtual microscopy for learning and assessment in pathology. J Pathol. 2004(5);204:611-8. PMID: 15470688. https://doi.org/10.1002/path.1658.

Goldberg HR, Dintzis R. The positive impact of team-based virtual microscopy on student learning in physiology and histology. Adv Physiol Educ. 2007;31(3):261-5. PMID: 17848592. https://doi.org/ 10.1152/advan.00125.2006.

Jara-Lazaro RA, Thamboo TP, Teh M, Tan PH. Digital pathology: exploring its applications in diagnostic surgical pathology practice. Pathology. 2010;42(6):512-8. PMID: 20854068. https://doi.org/ 10.3109/00313025.2010.508787.

Vainer B, Mortensen NW, Poulsen SS, et al. Turning microscopy in the medical curriculum digital: Experiences from the faculty of health and medical sciences at University of Copenhagen. J Pathol Inform. 2017;8:11. https://doi.org/10.4103/2153-3539.201919.

Hiedger PM Jr., Dee F, Consoer D, Leaven T., Duncan J, Kreiter C. An integrated approach to teaching and testing in histology with real and virtual imaging. Anat Rec. 2002;269(2):107-12. PMID: 12001217. https://doi.org/10.1002/ar.10078.

Weinsten RS. Innovations in medical imaging and virtual microscopy. Hum Pathol. 2005;36(4):317-9. PMID: 15891989. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.humpath.2005.03.007.

Dee FR, Meyerholz DK. Teaching medical pathology in the twenty-first century: virtual microscopy applications. J Vet Med Educ. 2007;34(4):431-6. PMID: 18287469. https://doi.org/10.3138/jvme.34.4.431.

Fontelo P, Faustorilla J, Gavino A, Marcelo A. Digital pathology –implementation challenges in low-resource countries. Anal Cell Pathol. 2012;35(1):31-6. PMID: 22233702. PMCID: PMC4605723. https://doi.org/10.3233/ACP-2011-0024.

Marchevsky AM, Khurana R, Thomas P, Scharre K, Farias P, Bose S. The use of virtual microscopy for proficiency testing in gynecologic cytopathology: a feasibility study using Scan Scope. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2006;130(3):349-55. PMID: 16519563. https://doi.org/10.1043/1543-2165(2006)130[349:TUOVMF]2.0.CO;2.

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.